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Thursday, 15 March 2018

Discipline of Information Technologies!


Discipline of Information Technologies

In the broadest sense, IT covers all areas of creation, transmission, storage and perception of information, not limited only to computer technology. At the same time, IT is often associated with computer technology, and it's not accidental: the appearance of computers has brought IT to a new level, as it was once television, and even before the printing business.

Information Technology Branch

The information technology industry is engaged in the creation, development and operation of information systems. Information technologies are designed, based and rationally using modern advances in the field of computer technology and other high technologies, the latest means of communication, software and practical experience, to solve the problems of efficient organization of the information process to reduce the time, labor, energy and material resources in all spheres human life and modern society. Information technologies interact and often form a part of services, management, industrial production, social processes.

History of Information Technology

The term "information technology" in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 paper published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Weisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single set name. We will call it information technology (IT) "[source not specified 114 days]. Their definition consists of three categories: methods of processing, application of statistical and mathematical methods for decision making and modeling of higher order thinking with the help of computer programs.
Based on the technologies of storage and processing used, four separate stages of IT development can be identified: preliminary mechanical (3000 BC to 1450 AD), mechanical (1450-1840), electromechanical (1840-1940) and electronic (1940) ) - present). [Source not specified 114 days]
Information technologies began to develop actively since the 1960s, together with the appearance and development of the first information systems (IS).

The development of the Internet, as well as investments in infrastructure and services, caused the rapid growth of the IT industry in the late 1990s.
Early electronic computers, such as Colossus, use punched tapes, long strips of paper on which data were presented over a series of holes. This technology is not used now. Electronic data storage, which is used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when the delay memory was designed to remove clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of which was the delay of the mercury line. The first device with random access to digital storage was a Williams tube based on a standard cathode-ray tube, but the information stored in it and the memory latency line was unstable in that it had to be constantly updated, which led to the loss of information after the power was turned off. The earliest form of nonvolatile computer memory was a magnetic drum invented in 1932, and which is used in Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general purpose electronic computer.
IBM released the first hard disk in 1956, as a component of the computer system 305 RAMAC. Most digital data today still remains magnetically on hard disks or optically on media such as compact discs. Until 2002, most of the information was stored on analog devices, but that year the digital capacity exceeded the analog device for the first time. As of 2007, almost 94% of the data stored around the world has remained in digital form: 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital tape. It has been estimated that in the world the capacity for storing information on electronic devices has grown from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007, doubling about every 3 years.

The main features of modern IT

Structured standards for digital data exchange algorithms;
Wide use of computer preservation and provision of information in the required form;
The transfer of information through digital technology at virtually unlimited distances.

Fixed assets

Information technology encompasses all the resources necessary for information management, especially computers, software and networks needed to create, store, manage, transmit and retrieve information. Information technology can be grouped as follows:
1.       Technical means
2.       Communication facilities
3.       Organizational and methodical support
4.       Standardization.

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